There are a variety of zinc coatings used for corrosion protection, each having its own unique characteristics and performance.
Zinc coatings are applied to steel surfaces by hot dip galvanizing, electroplating, sherardising, mechanical plating, painting with zinc-rich coatings and zinc spraying (metallising). Of these, the HDG process is by far the most widely used.
Following is a brief explanation of each type of zinc coating. The figure below shows the typical relative thickness of each coating. In most cases the thickness of the coating is proportional to the durability of the article.
Batch hot dip galvanizing
Prepared items are galvanized by immersion in molten zinc. The surface of the work is completely covered, producing a uniform coating of zinc and zinc-iron alloy layers whose thickness is determined principally by the mass of the steel being galvanized. This is an important advantage of the galvanizing process – a standard minimum coating thickness is applied automatically regardless of the operator.
The molten zinc in the galvanizing bath covers corners, seals edges, seams and rivets, and penetrates recesses to give complete protection to areas which are potential corrosion spots with other coating systems. The galvanized coating is slightly thicker at corners and narrow edges, giving greatly increased protection compared to organic coatings which thin out in these critical areas. Complex shapes and open vessels may be galvanized inside and out in one operation.
Articles ranging in size from small fasteners to structures hundreds of metres high may be protected by the use of modular design techniques. Large galvanizing baths, in conjunction with modular design techniques and double-end dipping allow almost any structure to be galvanized, with greatly reduced maintenance costs and extended service life.
Small items can be dipped into the molten zinc in a container which is spun or centrifuged upon removal of the molten zinc. This aids in removing excess zinc from threads and edges and provides a smooth, albeit thinner coating than batch dipped items.
Steel sheet, pipe and wire can be continuously galvanized in specially developed galvanizing processes. These processes are widely used and typically allow accurate control of coating thickness, ductility and other characteristics of the zinc coating, producing a broad range of products to suit the varying requirements of subsequent manufacturing operations and end usage.
These products should not be confused with batch hot dip galvanized articles. In-line galvanized articles always produce thinner coatings than batch hot dip galvanizing for the same steel thickness and therefore offer less corrosion protection when exposed to the same environment.
Continuous galvanized products can usually be further processed by bending or roll forming, for example as purlins and girts, without damaging the coating. In addition, welded hollow sections formed from pre-galvanized strip are in wide use. Note welds, cut ends and drilled or punched holes may need repair to restore the corrosion protection, depending on the application and environment.
Thermal spray (or metallising)
Thermal spraying or metallising is the process of spraying semi-molten zinc, other metals or their alloys onto fabricated items using wire or powder heated by a flame, arc spray or plasma heat source.
Zinc spraying has the advantage that zinc coatings up to 250μm thick, equivalent to 1500g/m2 can be applied, by either manual or mechanized methods and the process can be carried in the factory or field. The steel surface must be prepared by grit blasting and the coating cannot normally extend to the internal surfaces. In addition it is subject to damage or restricted application at sharp edges, tight corners, holes and poor surface preparation. The resulting zinc coating provides both barrier and cathodic protection for the underlying steel in the same way as a galvanized coating.
In most cases thermal spraying is more expensive than batch hot dip galvanizing for the equivalent section, but these processes are complementary and used in tandem in large structures.
Electroplating is an economic, versatile and effective method of applying a protective coating to small steel components. It is the most widely used method of applying metallic zinc coatings to small fasteners, particularly those with fine threads. However, fasteners used with batch hot dip galvanized articles should have comparable corrosion protection and composition to avoid bimetallic corrosion.
There is, in general, an economic upper limit to the zinc coating mass which can be applied by electroplating and therefore is normally not used for outdoor exposure without supplementary coatings.
Sherardizing and thermal diffusion
Sherardizing involves heating steel articles in a closed rotating drum that also contains metallic zinc dust and usually an inert filler, such as sand to approximately 500°C. At temperatures above 300°C, zinc evaporates and diffuses into the steel substrate forming diffusion bonded Zn-Fe-phases. The similar thermal diffusion process usually operates with less filler and a lower temperature (400°C) and is therefore more efficient.
Sherardising and thermal diffusion are most effective for small articles – typically those with fine threads, although the article size is limited only by the rotating drum size. The process also precludes hydrogen embrittlement and it can therefore be used safely for very high strength steels above 1000 MPa. Coating thickness vary from 20 to 120 µm, although are commonly coated in the 20 to 50 µm range. The coating thickness is typically dependent on the time in the rotating drum, not on the steel thickness.
Mechanical plating or peen plating is an ‘electroless’ plating method used to deposit coatings of ductile metals onto metal substrates using mechanical energy and heat. It is used to plate zinc onto steel parts, particularly threaded components and close tolerance items. The coating thickness is often similar to that of electroplated items.
Zinc rich paints
Zinc rich paint coatings consist of metallic zinc dust in organic or inorganic vehicle/binders.
Surface preparation by abrasive blast cleaning or by using power tools to expose bare steel with a profile (e.g. SSPC SP-11) is necessary, and coatings may be applied by brush or spray. Zinc rich coatings are barrier coatings which also provide cathodic protection to small exposed areas of steel, provided the steel surface is properly prepared, and the paint conforms to relevant Standards (for example, AS/NZS 3750.9 and AS/NZS 3750.15). Suitable zinc rich paint coatings also provide a useful repair coating for damaged or worn galvanized coatings.
These products have the advantage over hot dip galvanizing in that they can be applied in the field and to any sized article. Some products can be applied with thicker or top coats to provide extra protection. The disadvantages are susceptibility to transport and field damage, curing times, and cost for equivalent corrosion protection (usually as part of a system).